Drug and Alcohol Addiction Treatment Terms and Definitions
To refrain from the usage of chemicals to which a person may have become addicted.
A person who has a craving for an addictive substance and who is physically or emotionally dependent on that substance on a daily basis.
The condition of being habitually or compulsively occupied with or involved in something.
The study of addictions; usually focused on drug and alcohol addiction.
A physician certified in the field of addiction medicine, usually specializing in the areas of drug and alcohol abuse.
The evaluation and treatment of people suffering from the disease of drug addiction, alcoholism and associated disorders.
The attempt by one or more people to cause another person to discontinue their use of drugs, alcohol or harmful behavior. This service is usually provided by a licensed professional or within an addiction treatment program.
Addiction treatment center
A licensed facility that specializes in the evaluation and treatment of drug addiction, alcoholism and associated disorders. This center may provide residential treatment, partial hospitalization treatment or outpatient treatment services.
Addiction treatment facility
A licensed facility that specializes in the evaluation and treatment of drug addiction, alcoholism and associated disorders. This facility may provide residential treatment, partial hospital treatment or outpatient treatment services.
Addiction treatment program
Usually located within an addiction treatment facility or addiction treatment center, the program is comprised of medical services, clinical services, nutritional and education services all focused on the addict or alcoholic achieving and maintaining long term abstinence from drugs, alcohol or other addictive substances.
Addiction treatment unit
Usually a section (group of beds, etc.) of a general or psychiatric hospital specializing in the treatment of addictive diseases, drug addiction and alcoholism.
1. A colorless volatile flammable liquid, C2H5OH, synthesized or obtained by fermentation of sugars and starches. Widely used, either pure or denatured, as a solvent and in drugs, cleaning solutions, explosives and intoxicating beverages.
2. An addictive liquid substance capable of altering one’s mood and mind. The abuse of this substance leads to alcoholism.
A person who drinks alcohol habitually and who has a craving for alcohol. Once they have one drink, they experience an obsession and compulsion for more.
A voluntary and anonymous self-help organization of individuals who share a common problem with alcohol and sometimes, drugs.
The use of alcohol that interferes substantially in emotional, social or occupational functioning; the pathological use of alcohol.
A chronic disease including uncontrolled drinking and preoccupation with alcohol.
A disturbance in behavior or mental function during or after alcohol consumption. When a person has consumed so much alcohol that they are unconscious or semi-conscious, their respiration has slowed to eight or less breaths per minute or at least eight seconds between each breath, their skin is cold and clammy and there is a strong odor of alcohol. Alcohol poisoning can result in death if the individual is not provided with prompt attention.
Alcohol treatment center or facility
A licensed facility that specializes in the evaluation and treatment of alcoholism and associated addictions. Many people use drugs in conjunction with alcohol. The center may provide residential treatment, partial hospital treatment or outpatient treatment services.
The consumption of alcohol. Moderate drinking is up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men.
A disorder characterized by the excessive consumption of and dependence on alcoholic beverages leading to physical and psychological harm and impaired social and vocational functioning. Also called alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence.
A trademark used for the drug zolpidem, a prescription sleep aid.
A colorless, volatile liquid, C9H13N, used as a central nervous system stimulant in the treatment of certain conditions, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and narcolepsy, and abused illegally as a stimulant.
A drug that counteracts the effects of another drug.
Ativan® is the brand name for Lorazepam, an anti-anxiety agent.
Any of a group of chemical compounds with a common molecular structure and similar pharmacological effects, used as anti-anxiety agents, muscle relaxants, sedatives, hypnotics and sometimes, as anticonvulsant’s.
The consumption of five or more alcoholic beverages within a short period of time.
An opiate antagonist used in the treatment of heroin addiction.
Cannabis, commonly known as marijuana and numerous other names, is a preparation of the Cannabis plant intended for use as a psychoactive drug and as medicine.
The abuse of a chemical or substance to the extent that it interferes substantially in emotional, social or occupational functioning.
A physical or psychological habituation to a mood or mind altering substance such as alcohol or drugs.
Chemical dependency treatment
An attempt by one or more people to cause another person to discontinue their use of drugs, alcohol or unhealthy behavior. This service is usually provided by a licensed professional or within an addiction treatment program.
Chemical dependency treatment program
Is usually located within an addiction treatment center or addiction treatment facility and is focused on the addict or alcoholic achieving and maintaining long term abstinence. There are various components such as medical, psychological, clinical, nutritional and educational.
When a person has formed a physical or psychological addiction or habituation to mood or mind altering chemicals such as alcohol or drugs.
A term to describe problems that are permanent and ongoing
Pain that is ongoing and appears to be permanent.
Chronic pain management
Suppression of the ongoing pain a person is experiencing in a manner that will improve the person’s quality of life.
A process by which a person continually returns to self-destructive behavior or drug and alcohol use after periods of recovery or sobriety.
A loosely defined category of recreational drugs which are popular at dance clubs, parties and rock concerts. In particular, these drugs are associated with techno and punk music and tend to have stimulating and/or psychedelic properties. Examples of typical club drugs include Ecstasy and various amphetamines, but less obviously suitable substances like GHB and Ketamine (which do not act as stimulants) are also common. The term “club drug” is used only to describe the context of a drug’s use and not the chemical properties of the drug in question.
A colorless or white crystalline alkaloid, C17H21NO4, extracted from coca leaves. Sometimes used in medicine as a local anesthetic, especially for the eyes, nose or throat and widely used as an illicit drug for its euphoric and stimulating effects.
An alkaloid narcotic, C18H21NO3, derived from opium or morphine and used as a cough suppressant, analgesic and hypnotic.
A type of dysfunctional relationship where one person supports or enables another person’s addiction, poor mental health, immaturity, irresponsibility or under-achievement.
Excessive emotional or psychological reliance on a partner, typically a partner who requires support due to an illness or addiction.
A term used to describe repetitive behaviors or mental acts preformed over and over in response to an obsessive thought.
A term used to describe thoughts or behaviors that are driven by anxiety.
When a person continues to gamble despite negative consequences. The person is usually in denial, experiences changes in moods and the behavior is chronic and escalating. Symptoms of withdrawal are present when the behavior is discontinued.
Compulsive sexual behavior
When a person continues having sex despite negative consequences. The person will experience changes in mood and denial, the behavior is chronic, escalating and withdrawal symptoms present themselves when the behavior is discontinued.
The presence of two or more disorders at the same time. For example, a person may suffer substance abuse as well as bipolar disorder. Also known as Dual Diagnosis.
The highly addictive freebase form of cocaine that can be smoked. It may also be termed rock, work, hard, iron, cavvy, base or just crack.
A powerful desire or urge for drugs, alcohol or other addictive substances.
A concentrated and highly potent form of methamphetamine with dangerous side effects. The process of crystallizing puts the methamphetamine into a very pure and potent form that is highly addictive.
Brand Name for a mixture of acetaminophen and propoxyphene. A commonly prescribed analgesic. See Opiates.
Day treatment program
A program where addiction and alcoholism is treated, while the addict or alcoholic lives at home or in another supportive environment. Clinical services are usually available approximately 4 – 5 hours a day, five days a week, which is more comprehensive than an outpatient program and less intensive than an inpatient treatment program.
An idiosyncratic belief or impression that is firmly maintained despite being contradicted by what is generally accepted as reality or rational argument, typically a symptom of mental disorder.
A trademark used for a preparation of meperidine, a narcotic pain reliever. See meperidine
The failure to admit or even realize that one is addicted or to realize and accept the harm caused by the addiction.
Depade® is the trade name for the opiate antagonist Naltrexone. See Naltrexone.
A tendency to rely on others or in this case, drugs or alcohol.
A drug or endogenous compound that lowers neurotransmission levels to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation in various areas of the brain. Depressants, including alcohol, benzodiazepines and narcotics, such as Demerol, morphine, methadone, work by mimicking endorphins.
Depression or Depressive Disorder
An illness that involves the body, mood and thoughts. It affects the way a person eats and sleeps, the way one feels about oneself and the way one thinks about things. A depressive disorder is not the same as a passing blue mood. It is not a sign of personal weakness or a condition that can be willed or wished away. People with a depressive illness cannot merely “pull themselves together” and get better. Without treatment, symptoms can last for weeks, months or years. Appropriate treatment, however, can help most people who suffer from depression.
A medically supervised process of assisting the body to rid itself of drugs or alcohol while effectively managing the symptoms associated with withdrawal.
A medically supervised process of assisting the body to rid itself of drugs or alcohol while effectively managing the symptoms associated with withdrawal.
Can be inpatient or outpatient in nature with medical supervision and is designed to effectively manage the symptoms associated with withdrawal from addictive substances. Addicts and alcoholics are much more comfortable and usually see much better long term results by utilizing the detox services of an inpatient detox program.
A trademark used for the drug dextroamphetamine, a stimulant which treats attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy (a sleep problem).
A white crystalline compound, C9H13N, that is the dextrorotatory isomer of amphetamine. Used in the form of its phosphate or sulfate salt as a central nervous system stimulant, both medically and illicitly.
Diazepam is mainly used to treat anxiety, muscle spasms, seizures, insomnia and symptoms of acute alcohol or opiate withdrawal. The most common brand name of this drug is Valium® which entered the U.S. market in 1963. Valium® became controversial as a widely prescribed tranquilizer and widespread abuse.
Brand Name for Hydromorphone, a narcotic analgesic for moderate to severe chronic pain. See Hydromorphone.
Disease model of addiction
The disease model of addiction describes an addiction as a disease with biological, neurological, genetic and environmental sources of origin. The traditional medical model of disease requires only that an abnormal condition be present that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the individual afflicted.
A psychological process on which attention is diverted from a painful, traumatic thought or memory.
Mental disorders characterized by a sudden temporary alteration in consciousness, identity or motor behavior. They include psychogenic amnesia, psychogenic fugue, multiple personality disorder and depersonalization disorder.
Any hurtful or unwanted behavior perpetrated upon an individual by an intimate or former intimate. Includes physical, psychological and emotional abuse.
The neurotransmitter in the brain that is responsible for regulating motivation, emotion, movement and feelings of pleasure.
A medicine or other substance which has a physiological effect when ingested or otherwise introduced into the body.
1. The abuse of a substance to the extent that it interferes substantially in emotional, social or occupational functioning; pathological use of prescribed or un-prescribed substances.
2. Habitual use of drugs to alter one’s mood, emotion or state of consciousness.
A person who has become physically or emotionally dependent on addictive substances (drugs, alcohol) which impair them from a physical, emotional, social or even vocational perspective.
Psychological and physiological substance dependence.
A physical or psychological habituation to a mood or mind altering substance.
Drug rehabilitation (often drug rehab or just rehab) is an umbrella term for the processes of medical and/or psychotherapeutic treatment, for dependency on psychoactive substances, such as alcohol, prescription drugs and so-called street drugs, including cocaine, heroin or amphetamines.
The consumption of drugs or prescription medication.
Dual Diagnosis refers to an individual who has been diagnosed with substance abuse and a concurrent mental health issue, such as depression, anxiety, bi-polar disorder or other mental illness. Also known as co-occurring disorders.
Refers to the person who suffers from a significant mental illness and a concurrent addiction problem.
Any of a range of psychological disorders characterized by abnormal or disturbed eating habits (such as anorexia nervosa).
Allowing irresponsible destructive behavior patterns to continue by taking responsibility for others and not allowing them to face their own consequences.
The exaggerated feeling of well-being or elation.
Either of two drugs used for their euphoric effects. The original ecstasy, a so-called designer drug, also known as MDMA, is an analog of methamphetamine (see amphetamine). The other drug is a substance also known as ma huang or ephedra; marketed to promote the idea that it is a natural and safe form of ecstasy. The active ingredient of herbal ecstasy is ephedrine.
Fetal alcohol syndrome
A set of physical and mental birth defects (including brain damage, facial deformities, and growth deficits) that can result when a woman drinks alcohol during her pregnancy. Other problems that may affect the baby are heart, liver and kidney defects; vision and hearing problems. Children and adults born with FAS have learning, attention, memory and problem solving difficulties.
Gamma Hydroxybutyrate. A clear liquid taken for its euphoric and relaxing effects. Common at raves and other club parties, GHB can be used as a date rape drug. Overuse can lead to physical addiction and harm.
The result of repeated consumption of a drug which produces a psychological but not a physical dependence. The psychological dependence produces a desire (not a compulsion) to continue taking drugs or alcohol for a sense of improved well-being.
A white, odorless, bitter crystalline compound, C17H17NO(C2H3O2)2, that is derived from morphine and is a highly addictive narcotic. Also called diacetylmorphine.
Hydrocodone is an effective antitussive (anti-cough) agent. As an opiate, it is also an effective analgesic for mild to moderate pain control.
A hydrogenated ketone of morphine, it is an opioid analgesic.
Intervention refers to the act of a loved one, doctor, counselor, certified interventionist or other concerned party having a meeting with a drug abuser, usually without the drug abuser’s advance knowledge, in an attempt to get that individual into a drug or alcohol treatment program.
A general anesthetic given intravenously or intramuscularly, especially for minor surgical procedures in which muscle relaxation is not required. A common drug of abuse, it falls under the category “club drugs.”
Trademark used for a semi-synthetic opioid synthesized from codeine, one of the opioid alkaloids found in the opium poppy. It is a narcotic analgesic used orally as an antitussive/cough suppressant, but also commonly taken orally for relief of moderate to severe pain. See Hydrocodone.
Lorazepam (also known by its brand name Ativan® or Temesta®) is a benzodiazepine drug with short to medium duration of action. Treats anxiety, anxiety with depression and insomnia.
A crystalline compound, C20H25N3O, derived from lysergic acid and used as a powerful hallucinogenic drug. Also called acid.
Marijuana (marihuana) Cannabis sativa L., also known as Indian hemp, is a member of the Cannabaceae or hemp family. A preparation of the Cannabis plant intended for use as a psychoactive drug and as medicine.
A synthetic narcotic compound, C15H21NO2, used in its hydrochloride form as an analgesic and sedative. Sold under the brand name Demerol®, this drug can be highly physically addictive.
A potent synthetic narcotic drug, C21H27NO, that is less addictive than morphine or heroin and is used as a substitute for these drugs in addiction treatment programs. It may also be used for chronic pain management.
Also known as Meth. An amine derivative of amphetamine, C10H15N, used in the form of its crystalline hydrochloride as a central nervous system stimulant, both medically and illicitly. The process of crystallizing puts the methamphetamine into a very pure and potent form that is highly addictive.
A bitter crystalline alkaloid, C17H19NO3Â·H2O, extracted from opium, the soluble salts of which are used in medicine as an analgesic, a light anesthetic, or a sedative. Also called morphia.
A class of depressant drugs derived from opium or compounds related to opium. A drug or other substance affecting mood or behavior and sold for nonmedical purposes, especially an illegal one.
A self-help, anonymous and voluntary organization of individuals who have a problem with drugs and sometimes alcohol. There are no dues or fees to join this organization.
Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist used primarily in the management of alcohol dependence and opioid dependence. It is marketed in generic form as its hydrochloride salt, naltrexone hydrochloride, and under the trade names Revia® and Depade®. In some countries including the United States, an extended-release formulation is marketed under the trade name Vivitrol®.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that transmit signals across a synapse from one neuron to another “target” neuron.
A medication or illegal drug that is either derived from the opium poppy or that mimics the effect of an opiate (a synthetic opiate). Opiate drugs are narcotic sedatives that depress activity of the central nervous system, reduce pain and induce sleep. Side effects may include over-sedation, nausea and constipation. Long term use of opiates can produce addiction, and overuse can cause overdose and potentially death.
A bitter, yellowish-brown, strongly addictive narcotic drug prepared from the dried juice of unripe pods of the opium poppy and containing alkaloids such as morphine, codeine and papaverine.
Outpatient treatment program
A program where addiction or alcoholism is treated while the addict or alcoholic resides at home or in another supportive environment. Outpatient treatment can be available several times a week or once a week with the services lasting approximately three hours per day.
The use of any drug in such large quantities that acute adverse physical or mental effects occur. It can be deliberate or accidental; lethal or non-lethal.
Treats moderate to severe pain when around-the-clock pain relief is needed for a long period of time. Slow-release oxycodone is a narcotic medicine that should not be taken more often than every 12 hours. Oxycodone is marketed under the brand names Roxicodone®, OxyContin® and Oxecta® and has a high risk of addiction and overdose, which can lead to death.
The brand name of a time-release formula of the analgesic chemical Oxycodone. Has a high risk of addiction and overdose, which can lead to death.
Percocet® is a brand name for a mix of active ingredients oxycodone, a narcotic (opiate) pain medication and a non-narcotic pain medication, acetaminophen. This combination relieves pain better than either medication taken alone. Oxycodone (see Oxycodone) acts on smooth muscle tissue and slows the central nervous system.
Trade name for a preparation of aspirin and oxycodone. See Oxycodone.
A physiological state of adaptation to a substance, the absence of which produces symptoms and signs of withdrawal. It is possible to be physically dependent on a drug without being addicted to it. Physical dependence is the result of physical changes in the brain.
An illness that prevents the ability to distinguish between the real world and the imaginary world. Symptoms include hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that aren’t really there, or delusions), irrational thoughts and fears.
The process of reducing or eliminating the consumption of destructive substances and behaviors, followed by a return to a normal state of health, mind or strength.
Rehab or Rehabilitation
A term for the processes of medical or psychotherapeutic treatment for dependency on psychoactive substances such as alcohol, prescription drugs and street drugs, such as cocaine, heroin or amphetamines.
Resuming the use of a drug or a chemical substance after one or more periods of abstinence.
The method of counseling, services treatment and behavior modification designed to prevent a recovering addict from returning to the abuse of drugs or alcohol.
Residential treatment center or facility
A licensed live-in addiction and alcohol treatment facility providing therapy for substance abuse, mental illness or other behavioral problems.
Residential treatment program
The evaluation and treatment of drug addiction and alcoholism. Its goal is to teach addicts and alcoholics how to achieve and maintain long term abstinence. The components of such a program are generally medical, psychological, clinical, nutritional and educational.
Revia ® is a trade name for the opiate antagonist Naltrexone. See Naltrexone.
An acronym for screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment— an evidence-based, effective method to intervene in alcohol and drug misuse.
Medication for the treatment of opiate dependence (addiction). Contains the active ingredient buprenorphine hydrochloride, which works to reduce the symptoms of opiate dependence.
A neurotransmitter that has an effect on perception, movement and emotions by managing the actions of other neurotransmitters in the brain.
Psychoactive drugs that induce temporary improvements in either mental or physical functions or both. Examples of these kinds of effects may include enhanced alertness, wakefulness and locomotion, among others. Some stimulants, often called “uppers,” are available only through prescription and others are illegal. The more common types of stimulants are caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamines and methamphetamines.
Contains a combination of buprenorphine and naloxone. Buprenorphine is an opioid medication. Naloxone is a special narcotic drug that reverses the effects of other narcotic medicines. Suboxone is often used to treat narcotic (opiate) addiction.
Overindulgence in or dependence on an addictive substance, especially alcohol or drugs.
Substance abuse facility
A licensed center which specializes in the evaluation and treatment of drug addiction and alcoholism. The services can be residential treatment, partial hospital treatment or outpatient treatment.
Substance abuse treatment
Intended to help addicted individuals stop compulsive drug seeking and use. Treatment can occur in a variety of settings. such as a residential rehab or an outpatient center, and last for different lengths of time.
Pattern of behavior that develops from repeated drug administration and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
A situation where higher doses of a drug or alcohol are needed to achieve the same effect as initially experienced.
Drug or alcohol effects which are detrimental to the functioning of an organ or organs.
In this case, a treatment center would refer to a licensed addiction treatment facility, which specializes in the treatment of drug addiction, alcoholism and associated disorders. The services could include residential treatment, partial hospital treatment or outpatient treatment services.
A medical and clinical plan, designed by the physicians and clinicians of addiction and alcohol treatment programs, complete with goals and objectives focused on the addict or alcoholic achieving and maintaining long term abstinence.
Valium® is a common brand name for Diazepam. See Diazepam.
Vivitrol® is a trade name for the opiate antagonist Naltrexone. See Naltrexone.
The process of ceasing to take an addictive drug.
The actual effects an addict or alcoholic experiences when they discontinue the use of drugs and/or alcohol. Examples could include sweats, tremors, nausea, joint or bone pain, confusion, loss of concentration, diarrhea or loss of appetite.
Xanax® is a brand name for Alprazolam, a short acting benzodiazepine.
Zolpidem is a medicine that helps a person get to sleep and stay asleep. The brand name of zolpidem in the U.S. is Ambien®.
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